﻿ Math Functions

# Math Functions

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# Math Functions

You can easily use regular algebraic and trigonometric math functions.

Simply select the values you want to work the function on and then select the function from the menu and Calculor will wrap the selection for you.

Or you can just type it out if you happen to remember the code.  (For more information on how math functions work, check out this site.)

Tip: If you enter a function and it does not calculate, (that is, it just says, "...") then you are either missing one of its parameters or you have mis-entered the function name.  Some functions require two parameters.  You can see what is required in the Insert Math menu, at the right side.

Exponent

**

Value raised to X power.

Use ** as operator.  Thus, 5**2 is the same as 52 because you can't really type a 2 into the equation.

5**2=25

Expression

exp(number)

Euler's Constant (E) raised to the power of number.  In other words, exp(3) is the same as e * e * e

Square Root

sqt(number)

Number when multiplied by itself equals a particular value.  Thus the square root of 4, sqt(4) = 2 because 2 * 2 = 4.

Absolute Value

abs(number)

Distance from zero.  Thus, 156 and -156 are 156 from zero, so abs(156) = 156, and abs(-156) = 156.

Round

round(number)

Changes a decimal to it's closest whole value

Floor

floor(number)

Largest nearest integer not greater than the argument (sort of like rounding down).  Thus, floor(2.31) = 2.

Ceiling

ceil(number)

Number rounded up to nearest integer.  Thus, ceil(2.31) = 3.

Logarithm

log(number)

Returns a base10 logarithm.  How many of one number do we multiply to get another number?

The actual math function for log allows for the base to change: log2(100) for example, using base2.  But our log function is always base10.

Therefore, our log(100) is really log10(100). This is the same as saying, "How many 10's are necessary to get 100", thus, log(100) = 10.

Natural Logarithm

Ln(number)

Logarithm using E for it's base.

When you have a logarithm it has a base (see logarithm above), but a Natural Logarithm uses Euler's number (E) as it's base.  Thus, Ln(7.389) is the same as loge(7.389). See here for more info.

Factorial

fac(number)

To multiply a series of descending natural numbers.

For example, fac(5) is the same as writing 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1, and it equals 120.

Normally you would be able to write 5! (folks say, "5 bang") instead of fac(5), but Calculor thinks ! is a 1, so you can't do that. See more here.

Fibonacci Sequence

fib(number)

Returns the value from the nth place in the Fibonacci Sequence.

A series of numbers where the next number is found by adding the two numbers before it.

Consider the sequence:

0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181, 6765, 10946, 17711, 28657, 46368, 75025, 121393, 196418, 317811, ...

So,2 is found by adding 1+1; 3 is found by adding 1+2; 5 is found by adding 2+3.  55 is found by adding 21+34.

So the fib() function will find the nth number of the sequence, not counting 0; thus fib(3)=2 (see how 2 is the 3rd place in the sequence), and fib(8)=21 because 21 is the 8th place.

Something special about this sequence is that when we make squares from the values in the sequence it will form a golden spiral. See more here.

Greatest Common Divisor/Factor

gcd(a,b)  OR gcf(a,b)  (you can use either fashion)

Also known as Greatest Common Factor, or GCF.  The highest number that divides exactly into two or more numbers.  Especially useful for simplifying fractions.

gcd(15,30) = 15 and gcd(12,30) = 6.

You can only enter two numbers for this function. See more here.

Choose

choose(picks,possibilities)

Also known as "n choose r" or binomial coefficient or combinatorial number.  The number of ways of picking (choosing) r from n possibilities. See here for more.

Min

min(number,number)

Finds the lesser of two values.

Max

max(number,number)

Finds the greater of two values.

Sine

sin(angle)

Finds the ratio (Adjacent) of Opposite to Hypotenuse from given Angle

Cosine

cos(angle)

Finds the ratio (Opposite) of Adjacent to Hypotenuse from given Angle

Tangent

tan(angle)

Finds the ratio (Hypotenuse) of Opposite to Adjacent from given Angle

Inverse Sine

asin(sin)

Finds the angle of the Adjacent when given Sine

Inverse Cosine

acos(cos)

Finds the angle of the Opposite when given Cosine

Inverse Tangent

atan(tan)

Finds the angle of the Hypotenuse when given Tangent

Radian is an angle made by taking the radius and wrapping it around the circle. See more here.

Degree

Converts radians to degrees. See more here.

Pi

pi

3.14159265358979323846…

The ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle.

It is the distance halfway around a circle.  A circle with the diameter of 1 would have pi for the circumference.  The digits after the period go on forever with no pattern.  Another special mention here is that the distance from one number to another number in the Fibonacci Sequence is very close to Phi.

Phi

phi

The Golden Number: 1.61803398874989484820... There is no pattern to the digits after the period, and there is no limit.

This is a special ratio so that when we divide a line into two parts, the whole length divided by the long part is also equal to the long part divided by the short part.  It creates a specially proportioned rectangle with a beautiful shape based on human proportions.

It is actually 2 x sin(54o).

Euler's Number

e

2.7182818284590452353602874713527...

Used for the base of Natural Logarithms.  Named after Leonard Euler.  This is an important irrational number.  It can be built from a whole bunch of different processes and is very accurate, which is why it is important. See here for more info.